Guruma– The leader of the Hijra community in a given locality. The . Bangladesh by looking at the formation of the hijra identity from a holistic point of view. VIEWPOINTS The Signiicance of Hijrah in Islam Mohammad Hashim Kamali* Hijrah, migration or exodus, initially of the Prophet Muhammad and his. `Amr ibn `Abasa asked the Prophet (s): "What is the best migration?" He replied: " The best migration is for you to abandon what your Lord detests." It is part of a.

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Hijra/Transgender women communities who reviewed and provided comments sexual minorities in India. reffirodonverm.ga Download PDF. Main. PDF. Citation. EndNote. Share. EmailFacebookTwitter. Hijra/Hijrin: Language and Gender Identity. Author(s): Hall, Kira. Saud creatively reinterpreted the central Islamic concept of hijra (migration) to der Schizophrenen,” Zeitschrift für die gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie.

Furthermore, transphobia led many researchers and health organizations to address this issue in international forums in order to support the health and human rights of the transgender community [ 55 — 59 ]. The current study showed that mental health research dominated the field of transgender health.

Most mental health issues faced by transgender people are due to cultural intolerance, social stigma, discrimination, violence, and victimization [ 60 — 64 ].

The social stress and stigma created higher prevalence of depression and suicidal ideation in transgender individuals compared with cisgender people [ 65 , 66 ]. Transgender individuals are subject to psychological stress [ 67 ] due to discrimination and social rejection.

hijdra neurologie ebook

It should be emphasized that mental health issues in transgender persons are not due to transgender identity [ 9 ]. Studies indicated that a major cause of depression and suicidal ideation among transgender individuals is the stigma, trans-phobia, sexual assault, violence, and social de-evaluation [ 68 , 69 ].

The World Health Organization WHO is considering declassification of transgender and sexual orientation from mental health disease classification [ 70 ]. Such move by WHO was supported by the scientific community [ 71 , 72 ]. A key element in overcoming mental problems such as depression, anxiety, and stress in transgender persons is social support and acceptance [ 73 , 74 ]. Despite discrimination, stigma, and victimization, the transgender community had shown remarkable extent of resilience and survival [ 66 ].

The current study showed that global contribution to transgender health research was limited to the regions of Americas, Europe, South-East Asia, and Western Pacific. It was not surprising that countries such as USA, Brazil, Philippines, and Thailand showed relatively high research activity.

Unofficial reports indicated large numbers of transgender people in these countries. The number of publications from African and Mediterranean regions was limited. This could be attributed to the limited number of transgender people in both regions or due to limited research capacity in these regions.

African region is considered the highest in terms of numbers of people with AIDS [ 75 , 76 ] which could be due to the presence of infected female sex workers, lack of healthcare, and preventive measures but not due to transgender identity [ 77 — 79 ]. For the Mediterranean region, the cultural and religious background does not allow for sexual freedom and, therefore, data regarding transgender people, HIV, gay, lesbians, and bisexuals are relatively limited and might be inaccurate in that region [ 80 — 84 ].

Lack of preventive health practices and lack of screening are potential causes for the high prevalence of STD among transgender individuals [ 86 — 89 ]. Transgender health is a global issue and publications in this field is growing as a separate field or as part of research in LGBTQ community as an overall. The author did his best to collect all peer-reviewed documents in transgender health to endorse research and encourage other researchers and clinicians to get engaged in this field.

However, the author acknowledges the fact that not all publications and health journals are indexed in Scopus and therefore, some publications in this field might be missed.

This is a common limitation in bibliometric studies [ 31 , 36 , 90 — 93 ]. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer. World Health Organization. All data present in this article can be retrieved from Scopus using keywords listed in the methodology. The author read and approved the final manuscript. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Bibliometric analysis of peer-reviewed literature in transgender health — Sweileh 1 Email author. Abstract Background Transgender community is marginalized and under-researched.

Methods Peer-reviewed documents in transgender health were retrieved using Scopus database. Results In total, peer-reviewed documents were obtained. Conclusion There was a noticeable growth of research in transgender health in the last decade. Transgender Health Bibliometric analysis Human rights. Database In bibliometric studies, a large database is used to retrieve relevant documents for subsequent analysis.

Keywords used were partially obtained from published systematic reviews in transgender health [ 9 , 39 , 40 ]. The search strategy was based on both title search and journal search. In the title search, all documents with the following keywords in the title were retrieved: Types of documents, languages, and subject areas In total, documents were retrieved. This article discussed the neurological and psychiatric background of transvestism.

The number of publications continued to grow slowly from to Fig. During this period the number of publications remained below documents per year. A dramatic increase in the number of publications was observed after The maximum number of publications was recorded in The total number of documents published from to was The growth rate of publications from to was The retrieved documents received citations, an average of The h -index of the retrieved documents was The range of citations obtained was from 0 to The article that received the highest citations was published in International Journal of Transgenderism in This article provided clinical guidance for health professionals on how to assist transgender, transsexual, and gender non-conforming people in a safe and effective way [ 47 ].

The list included seven research articles and three review articles. Three of the highly cited articles were published in Journal of Homosexuality. The list included articles that discussed aspects in the field of mental health, infectious diseases, endocrinology, neurology, and public health of the transgender community.

Table 1 Top 10 cited articles in transgender health. A systematic review and meta-analysis [ 40 ] The Lancet Infectious Diseases Article Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender-related content in undergraduate medical education [ ] Journal of the American Medical Association Article.

Health-related author keywords with minimum occurrences of 10 were visualized and presented in network visualization map Fig. The most frequently encountered author keywords were grouped into seven different clusters shown in different colors. The most prominent clusters were those pertaining to HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases STD , mental health, social acceptance and human rights, psychotherapy, and counseling.

Overlay visualization, which shows the time of appearance of most frequently author keywords, indicated that keywords such as stigma, health disparities, health services, resilience, HIV prevention, and social support were the most recently used author keywords Fig.

Geographical distribution of the retrieved documents was based on the country affiliation of all authors participating in publishing the retrieved articles. The African region, Middle East, and Eastern Europe had limited contribution to literature in transgender health.

Documents with authors from the Netherlands had the highest impact with an average number of citations of 35 per document followed by those from Belgium Authors in top ten active countries contributed to Authors from the USA participated in publishing The most active countries included one country from Latin America; Brazil ; 2. Table 2 Top ten active countries in transgender health research.

Approximately 10, authors participated in publishing the retrieved documents, an average of 2. Table 3 Top ten active authors in the field of transgender health. Retrieved documents were published in journals with different scopes. The International Journal of Transgenderism ranked first with 4. However, documents in transgender health published in the American Journal of Public Health received the highest number of citations per article 53 followed by those published in Journal of Homosexuality The majority of top 10 active journals were in the field of sexual medicine.

One journal was in the field of public health, one was in plastic surgery, and one in the field of AIDS. Eight of most active journals were based in the USA while two were based in Europe.

Table 5 Top ten active journals in publishing in documents in transgender health research. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer WHO: Acknowledgments None. Funding None. Availability of data and materials All data present in this article can be retrieved from Scopus using keywords listed in the methodology. Ethics approval and consent to participate Not applicable.

Prognostication after cardiac arrest and hypothermia: A prospective study

Consent for publication Not applicable. Competing interests The author declares that he has no competing interests. The health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people: Institute of Medicine; Doing gender, doing heteronormativity: Present Tense.

How many adults identify as transgender in the unites states. Google Scholar Winter S. Lost in transition: Blueprint for the provision of comprehensive care for trans people and trans communities in Asia and the Pacific.

The gap report transgender people. Geneva; Transgender people: Global health burden and needs of transgender populations: Synergies in health and human rights: Transgender rights and politics: Groups, Issue framing, and policy adoption.

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University of Michigan Press; Transgender rights as human rights. AMA J.

Google Scholar Kirby T. Sari Reisner—making transgender health visible. Sam Winter and Kevan Wylie: Transgender health: Peru's transgender community: Lancet London, England. Accessed 1 Mar Healthcare and end-of-life needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender LGBT older adults: Resilience to discrimination and rejection among young sexual minority males and transgender females: J Homosex.

Prevalence of military sexual trauma and sexual orientation discrimination among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender military personnel: Marital status and perceived discrimination among transgender people. J Marriage Fam. Discrimination and resilience and the needs of people who identify as transgender: J Clin Nurs. Self-reported discrimination in health-care settings based on Recognizability as transgender: Arch Sex Behav.

Discrimination, mental health, and body image among transgender and gender-non-binary individuals: J Gay Lesbian Social Services.

What lies beneath: J Vocat Behav. Depression and discrimination in the lives of women, transgender and gender liminal people in Ontario, Canada.

Health Soc. Care Community. Bibliometric analysis of global scientific research on carbapenem resistance Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob.

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Global research trends of World Health Organization's top eight emerging pathogens. Glob Health. Bibliometric analysis of literature on antifungal triazole resistance: A bibliometric analysis of literature on malaria vector resistance: Bibliometric analysis of literature on female genital mutilation: Reprod Health. Bibliometric analysis of worldwide publications on multi-, extensively, and totally drug - resistant tuberculosis Multidiscip Respir Med.

Bibliometric analysis of medicine-related publications on poverty Comparison of PubMed, Scopus, web of science, and Google scholar: The sexual health of transgender men: J Sex Res. Lancet Infect Dis.

Software survey: VOSviewer, a computer program for bibliometric mapping. Hirsch JE. An index to quantify an individual's scientific research output. Beitrag zur Lehre vom Transvestismus. Standards of Care for the Health of transsexual, transgender, and gender-nonconforming people, version 7. Int J Transgenderism. Systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence studies in transsexualism.

AMA J Ethics. Global recognition of human rights for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people. Health Hum. Transsexuals and European human rights law.

Special issue: Local resistance to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender rights—preliminary comments. J Hum Rights. Moving forward: Portuguese Adolescents' attitudes toward sexual minorities: Homophobia, transphobia and culture: They often imbued with symbolism and validation of their various interpretations of the religion. Enduring the physical hardships of hijrah is viewed as a process of self-puriication for the love of God.

Various religious and political movements in Africa and Asia in the pre-and- post colonial times have, furthermore, employed hijrah as a major theme of their movements. Hijrah was, thus, seen to be closely associated with jihad as those who migrate in the way of God also engage in a holy struggle and true meaning of jihad. An emigrant is described as one who abandons sin and also associating with habitual sinners.

ICR 5. Professor Dr M. A member of the Constitution Review Commis- sion of Afghanistan , he has provided expert legal consultation to the new constitutions of Iraq, the Maldives and Somalia. Eminent authority on Islamic legal studies, he has published over academic articles and 35 texts, including standard textbooks at universities worldwide.

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Bibliometric analysis of peer-reviewed literature in transgender health (1900 – 2017)

Need an account? Click here to sign up. Help Center Find new research papers in:Ment Heal Wkly. That hijrah moved the centre stage of events in the early history of Islam from Mecca to Madinah and marked a turning point in the eventual success of Islam.

Rare Dis. Prevalence of military sexual trauma and sexual orientation discrimination among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender military personnel: HIV epidemic and human rights among men who have sex with men in sub-Saharan Africa: Experiences of transgender-related discrimination and implications for health: