Genes VII by Benjamin Lewin; 2 editions; First published in ; Subjects: In library, Genes, Genetics, Protected DAISY. Pandora's Genes. Read more Red Genes, Blue Genes: Exposing Political Irrationality. Read more Писмо VII. Read more. Genes VII. byLewin, Benjamin. Publication date For print-disabled users. Borrow this book to access EPUB and PDF files.

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Oxford University Press is proud to present GENES VII--the latest edition of Benjamin Lewin's best-selling textbook. This authoritative work provides an. Genes VII gives an integrated and authoritative account of the structure and function of genes. It is thoroughly up-to-date with the latest research and thinking in. Part VII: The Evolving Concept of the Gene. ERIC D. WIEBEN ing of gene structure and function is becoming a fundamen- tal component of .. morange_e. pdf.

All of the genetic changes that underlie FOXP2-related speech and language disorder disrupt the activity of FOXP2, a critical gene for normal speech and language development. Some individuals with FOXP2-related speech and language disorder have a deletion that removes a small segment of chromosome 7, including the FOXP2 gene and several neighboring genes.

Other people with this condition have a mutation within the FOXP2 gene itself. Less commonly, FOXP2-related speech and language disorder results from a rearrangement of the structure of chromosome 7 such as a translocation or from inheriting two copies of chromosome 7 from the mother instead of one from each parent a phenomenon called maternal uniparental disomy or maternal UPD, which is described in more detail with Russell-Silver syndrome, below.

It remains unclear how having two maternal copies of chromosome 7 affects the activity of the FOXP2 gene. Additional features that are sometimes associated with FOXP2-related speech and language disorder, including delayed motor development and autism spectrum disorders, likely result from changes to other genes on chromosome 7.

For example, in affected individuals with a deletion involving chromosome 7, a loss of FOXP2 is thought to disrupt speech and language development, while the loss of nearby genes accounts for other signs and symptoms. Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome Abnormalities of chromosome 7 are responsible for some cases of Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome, a disorder that affects development of the limbs, head, and face.

These chromosomal changes involve a region of the short p arm of chromosome 7 that contains the GLI3 gene. This gene plays an important role in the development of many tissues and organs before birth.

In some cases, Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome results from a rearrangement translocation of genetic material between chromosome 7 and another chromosome.

Other cases are caused by the deletion of several genes, including GLI3, from the short arm of chromosome 7. The loss of multiple genes can cause a more severe form of this disorder called Greig cephalopolysyndactyly contiguous gene deletion syndrome. People with this form of the disorder have characteristic developmental problems involving the limbs, head, and face, along with seizures, developmental delay, and intellectual disability.

Russell-Silver syndrome Abnormalities involving the inheritance of chromosome 7 can cause Russell-Silver syndrome, a rare condition characterized by slow growth, distinctive facial features, delayed development, speech and language problems, and learning disabilities.

People normally inherit one copy of each chromosome from their mother and one copy from their father. For most genes, both copies are expressed, or "turned on," in cells. For some genes, however, only the copy inherited from a person's father the paternal copy is expressed.

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For other genes, only the copy inherited from a person's mother the maternal copy is expressed. Finally, Lins et al. These fish exist as hermaphrodites, with males occurring at low frequency. Previous microsatellite data suggested a high degree of homozygosity within populations, consistent with a high degree of self fertilization. However, whole-genome sequences reveal a high degree of heterozygosity between lineages as well as within individuals in each lineage, suggesting a higher degree of outcrossing than previously supposed.

Establishing causal connections between genetic variation and organismal function Mongue and Walters examine the evolution of genes encoding sperm proteins in two divergent species of Lepidoptera, the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus and Carolina sphinx moth Manduca sexta.

These species possess chromosomal sex determination whereby males represent the homogametic sex ZZ and females the heterogametic sex WZ. The authors demonstrate in both species that sperm protein genes, which are predicted to have sexually antagonistic effects, are differentially enriched on the Z sex chromosome versus autosomes. They demonstrate further that Z enrichment in monarch butterfly is higher for ancestral- versus neo-regions of this sex chromosome.

Gross et al. It is possible that the duplicate copy rescues some of the pigmentation lost as a result of deletions in Mcr1 Gross et al. The study by Weiner et al.

The authors make the case that it is critical to conduct such knockdowns under field conditions rather than laboratory settings.

This contribution is one of few studies to attempt knockdowns in the field in a non-model organism.

Finally, Barts et al.

Table of Contents

Specifically, they examined whether changes in multiple lineages of fish that have independently colonized freshwater sulfidic springs in regions of North and Latin America evolved tolerance by predictable changes in the oxygen transport genes, myoglobin and hemoglobin.

They do not identify any predictable differences in expression or patterns of positive selection in these two genes that could explain the observed convergent evolution of tolerance to hydrogen sulfide, thus their work indicates that broader future studies using the same stressor will be necessary to determine the molecular basis of convergent evolution. Scaling up from genomic variation to broader evolutionary or ecological processes The final two papers in this special issue connect genomic variation with broader patterns or processes beyond the study species.

Renn et al. The four species under investigation represent two independent evolutionary transitions, allowing Renn and colleagues to ask if there are common genes underlying this behavioral transition.

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Through a comparative transcriptomic analysis, they remarkably find genes associated with monogamous mating systems, suggesting the same sets of genes are co-opted for convergent evolution of a monogamous mating from a polygamous mating system.

Finally, the paper by Matthews et al. Matthews and colleagues argue that diverse fields focused on documenting higher-level ecological and evolutionary patterns and processes could be advanced using genomic studies.

The authors propose to link phenotypic evolution and ecosystem dynamics with functional genomic variation to better inform our understanding of natural ecosystems. Reciprocal transplants demonstrate strong adaptive differentiation of the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana in its native range.

New Phytol.

From genes to ecosystems: a synthesis of the effects of plant genetic factors across levels of organization. B Biol. Molecular spandrels: tests of adaptation at the genetic level. Molecular evolution and expression of oxygen transport genes in livebearing fishes Poeciliidae from hydrogen sulfide rich springs. Genome 61 4 [This issue. Abstract Clausen, J. Experimental studies on the nature of species. Effect of varied environments on western North American plants. Carnegie Institution of Washington Publ.

Google Scholar Clausen, J. Environmental responses of climatic races of Achillea. Linking genotypes to phenotypes and fitness: how mechanistic biology can inform molecular ecology. C II-1 63 Wild type Heterozygous Autosomal recessive CMV: Cytomegalovirus CT: Computed tomography EBV: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis NGS: Next generation sequencing PBMC: Peripheral blood mononuclear cell PT: Acknowledgements We thank the patients and their family members.

Availability of data and materials All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this published article. Consent for publication Written informed consent for publication of medical data and genetic data were obtained from all family members. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Understanding organ dysfunction in hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Intensive Care Med. Hemophagocytic syndrome: Curr Opin Immunol. Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis secondary to human immunodeficiency virus-associated histoplasmosis. Open forum infectious diseases.

Nationwide survey of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in Japan. Int J Hematol.

Clinical presentation and outcome of pediatric patients with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in China: Pediatr Blood Cancer. First living-related liver transplant to cure factor VII deficiency. Pediatr Transplant. Analysis of biological phenotypes from 42 patients with inherited factor VII deficiency: Front Immunol. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis presenting with acute liver failure and central nervous system involvement in early infancy.

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Central nervous system involvement in Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis in adults: Chin Med J. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: J Pediatr. Coagulation Hematol Oncol Clin North Am.

Factor VII deficiency: Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. Molecular characterisation and three-dimensional structural analysis of mutations in 21 unrelated families with inherited factor VII deficiency. Thromb Haemost.

Lymphoma-associated hemophagocytic syndrome: Ann Hematol. Prognostic factors of early death in a cohort of adult haemophagocytic syndrome: Br J Haematol.

Critical care management of patients with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Control of bleeding associated with hemophagocytic syndrome in children:Conducting bioinformatics analysis we have explored the diversity of this secretion system in S. C level, both of whom carried compound heterozygous F7 c.

This high level expression of esxA relative to other ess genes has been noted previously [ 14 ]. Matthews and colleagues argue that diverse fields focused on documenting higher-level ecological and evolutionary patterns and processes could be advanced using genomic studies.

For example, in affected individuals with a deletion involving chromosome 7, a loss of FOXP2 is thought to disrupt speech and language development, while the loss of nearby genes accounts for other signs and symptoms.

Studies suggest that some genes on chromosome 7 may play critical roles in controlling the growth and division of cells. Adaptation genomics: the next generation.