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The Trebizond Lectionary miniatures were re-used to illustrate the texts of certain Gospel readings for particularly important feasts. As the subjects of the sixteen surviving Trebizond Lectionary miniatures correspond to the texts of the Gospel readings that they illustrated in the Cod.

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The secondary use of the Trebizond Lectionary miniatures in the Cod. Since the 9th century the textual contents and structure of Greek lectionaries have been standard4. The book is usually divided into two parts, the so-called sy- naxarion and menologion. The first part contains readings for movable festivals, from Easter to the end of Holy Week. The second consists of readings for fixed festivals, from the beginning of September to the end of August.

The synaxarion in turn is divided into four sections.

Then follow readings from Matthew and Luke. In the final section of the synaxarion, which coincides with the period of Lent, most of the readings are from Mark. Then comes the menologion. The selec- tion and number of readings in this section may vary. Gregory, Textkritik des Neuen Testamentes, 3 voll. I , hedited by E.


Colwell e D. Riddle, Chicago , pp. Interdisciplinary Approach to the Study of Illuminated Manuscripts 39 In keeping with this text structure, Byzantine lectionaries were usually deco- rated with four portraits of the Evangelists, which prefaced the beginning of the relevant section in the synaxarion.

Part two of the lectionary, the menologion, was often decorated with ornamental headpieces and initials only. In sumptuous ma- nuscripts some of the readings from both parts might be adorned with represen- tations of a particular feast, event or saint, which covered the whole page or were placed in the margins, headpieces or initials. The earliest extensively illustrated Byzantine lectionaries date back to the 10th century.

The Trebizond Lectionary was precisely this sort of manuscript. By comparing the standard structure of the text in a Byzantine lectionary and the traces of minia- tures in the Cod. In the Trebizond Lectionary the miniatures marked all the main structural divi- sions of the text and readings for the most important church feasts of the year. The four sections of the synaxarion were preceded by portraits of Evangelists John, Matthew, Luke and Mark fig.

The other miniatures in this part related to the period from Easter to Pentecost and to Lent.

The first included the miniatures for Easter fig. The latter mi- niature marked the division between the synaxarion and menologion: on its verso was an illustration for the reading for 1 September.

A comparison of this reconstructed cycle of miniatures from the Trebizond Lec- tionary with other similar 10th-century manuscripts reveals that the latter lacks such a close connection between the illustrations and the structure of the text.

Another two lectionaries with representations of Gospel subjects have survived from the 10th century: cod. See A. Zakharova, The Original Cycle In the brief outline of our reconstruction that follows we have marked the presumed titles of the non-extant miniatures with an asterisk. Kominis, Patmos.

Treasures of the Monastery, Athens , pp. Weitzmann, Die Byzantinische Buchmalerei…, I, pp. Almost all the surviving manuscripts of this type date to the second half of the 11th and first half of the 12th centuries; there are about fifteen of them In keeping with the widespread practice of the Comnenian period most of them have small miniatures placed in headpieces, margins and initials. A comparison of the deco- rative programmes of these lectionaries shows that they do not follow any single model: the choice of feasts, scale of images and relationship with the text are dif- ferent in each case.

Nevertheless, the decoration of these manuscripts clearly fol- lows the structure of the text and is often used to single out certain Gospel lections for the most important church feasts We believe that the Trebizond Lectionary reflects the crucial moment in the his- tory of the development of the lectionary illustrative cycle when a clear and logical structure of decoration was created in keeping with the text structure and liturgi- cal functions of the lectionary.

This fact has not been noticed by other scholars engaged in the study of illus- trated lectionaries. Both scholars were well aware of the ex- istence of the Trebizond Lectionary, but regarded it as a provincial product and could not envisage the whole cycle of its miniatures. Thus, the Trebizond Lectionary holds a very important place among liturgical books of its type.

The study of the iconography of the miniatures also allow us to discard the hypothesis that the Trebizond Lectionary was produced in Asia Minor or in some other Eastern provinces. This hypothesis, proposed by Gabriel Millet, Charles The most comprehensive study of the illustrated lectionaries of the 11th and 12th c. Weitzmann, A Xth Century Lectionary. Kessler, Chicago-London , pp. Dolezal, The Middle Byzantine Lectionary Novye otkrytia.

Interdisciplinary Approach to the Study of Illuminated Manuscripts 41 Rufus Morey, Kurt Weitzmann and some others15, rested on the fact that the ma- nuscript had come to Saint Petersburg from Trebizond. The iconographic peculiarities of Cappadocian painting are now much better studied than in the first half of the 20th century A more detailed study of the 16 miniatures has revealed, that in the cases, where some parallels with the Cappadocian painting may be drawn, there is no direct connection that could have arisen from the same local tradition.

It is rather the result of survival of some ol- der iconographic elements ascending to the Early Christian times. On the other hand, in the miniatures of the Trebizond Lectionary there are also some direct borrowings from Early Christian tradition, such as the iconography of the Last Supper, where Christ and the apostles are shown reclining at a C-shaped table; the two scenes of the Marriage at Cana, where Christ turns the water into wine by touching the jars with a staff; the small letters on white clothes of apostles in the Washing of feet, etc.

It is quite possible that these borowings were in some way instigated by the so called Macedonian Renaissance. This was a trend flowering at the court of the Emperor Constantine VII , who revived the interest in the classical tradi- tion and promoted collecting and copying of the Late Antique and Early Christian manuscripts and works of art We do not insist on a direct link between the Trebizond Lectionary and the court circles. Nevertheless, we consider it perfectly possible that the master of the Trebizond Lectionary19 was striving to imitate in part the iconography and the style of some Early Christian model In our opinion, neither the style of these miniatures is connected with the See, for instance, N.

Millet, Recherches…, pp. Weitzmann, Studies…, pp. We believe that the 16 miniatures of the Trebizond Lectionary were created by one artist. Belting e G. Cavallo, Die Bibel des Niketas. It rather reflects some important processes in the spiritual and cultural life common to many other works of art created in Constaninople after the middle of the 10th century.

In the mainstream mid-tenth century works of the Macedonian Renaissance such as the Leo Bible, the Paris Psalter, the cod. Stavronikita 43, etc. The Trebizond Lectionary ma- ster makes skilful use of the whole range of painterly devices widespread around the middle of the tenth century. Yet for all the outward similarity of devices and types of faces the general impression is fundamentally different.

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In the Trebizond Lectionary miniatures these elements form only a small part of the overall arse- nal of expressive devices. They are included in a different artistic system, which was created to embody ideals different from the aspirations of classical art of the preceding generation. The main task now is to reduce the material, natural condi- tionality of what is represented in order to bring out the irrational forces behind what is taking place.

This task was first put forward at the turn from the Late Antique to the Early Christian art. Now we witness a similar process once again.


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It is rather the result of survival of some ol- der iconographic elements ascending to the Early Christian times. It can tell us about different crafts such as the making of par- chment, paper, ink, pigments, bindings, metal covers , about writing, language, historical events, literature, art, religion, rites, etc.

Naumova, V.

Jahrhunderts, 2 voll.