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Where did it come from?
And again, why invite it across the channel or across the oceans? I will attempt to answer these questions in this chapter, albeit in a highly select- ive fashion. It is highly questionable whether Sloterdijk or Theweleit can be labelled media theorists or whether Luhmann has contributed anything noteworthy to the study of media technology. And while Kittler may still be the most important German media theorist, he stands for an extreme position that few of his peers share.
My approach, however, is based on the reverse assumption: Furthermore, I am not going to provide objective accounts of Kittler and Luhmann. Instead, I will attempt to tease out some of their less conspicuous radical features.
Here are — potentially exportable — ideas, thoughts, warnings, or signposts worth scrutinising. Certain caveats are necessary. Another informed observer, Reiner Leschke, has argued that this fractured assem- blage is due to the fact that at present in Germany media theories origi- nating outside the domain of media e. Regardless of how you describe this cacophony, the bottom line is that while in many countries media research tends to be organised around one or two hegemonic approaches, the German academic scene is marked by a conspicuous absence of such silverback alpha-theories.
The absence of a theory enjoying a broadly acknowledged dominant status entails a lack of a common understanding of key terms. For instance, despite their ideological differences, Birmingham-style cultural studies and Frankfurt-style critical theory share pretty straight- forward views of what a mass medium is. As a result, theoretical connections or cross-fertilisations that could result in a generally more acceptable definition of media are both rare and difficult.
Of course this cannot go on. The German education system is not known for its hospitality to intellectual unruliness.
Increasingly German media theory is running into administra- tive and institutional pressure to get its house in order, clear up the mess, establish a binding paradigm, achieve an academically and didactically viable consensus on terms and definitions, and provide a mutually agree- able disciplinary ancestry — in short, to consolidate and canonise. A first hypothesis: These academic foci have to be seen as deposits of differing historical experiences.
And how could it not be? The German colonial experience including its aftermath was geo- graphically limited and of short duration; and its atrocities were conveni- ently forgotten. German scholarship is instead more prone to investigate questions of homogenisation.
The latter is related to a succession of attempts to mold a nation, a people, a race, or a citizenry. Herein lies a key for the noticeable German focus on media and technology, for these attempts are inextricably linked to a highly visible deployment of media technology.
It would require an extensive investigation to explain this in sufficient detail; here I will offer no more than a few abbreviated histori- cal pointers.
As a result, cultural production was seen for an extended period as the major cohesive factor in the face of political frag- mentation. The very close relationship established right from the begin- ning of German literary scholarship between nurturing letters and nurturing the nation attests to the early awareness that Germany was a nation that, more than many others, had been written into being.
Germany, to put it bluntly, is a kind of media product. One often feels if it did not exist it would have been invented by theorists from Marshall McLuhan to Benedict Anderson to illustrate the complicity of print and nation.
This explains why so many of the current generation of German media schol- ars started out as scholars of literature. The noticeable decline in the status of literary studies is directly related to the rise of the importance of media studies. The large-scale escape into relevance from the growing insecurity of traditional humanities not only resulted in the marked philological bias of German media studies, it also ensured that the latter inherited some of the importance that in bygone days accrued to the study of literature.
As already mentioned, many of the most important approaches imported from literary scholarship to the study of media were not originally developed for the study of literature. The ease with which literary texts were replaced by other media stems from the fact that in most cases there was no corresponding change of approach. This is why Lovink chose the s as the point of emergence of the German scene, for it was during that particular decade that post- structuralist, systems-theoretical and constructivist theories none of which was home-grown literary scholarship in the first place migrated from literary studies to challenge the ruling media analyses shaped by the Frankfurt School and the German version of US-style communication studies.
Second, one of the most crucial developments for understanding modern German history is the rapid industrialisation following unification that, within one generation, transformed a primarily agrarian patchwork into an industrial superpower.
Among the many effects of this traumatic change was an intense intellectual and aesthetic engagement with technology, especially during the first half of the twentieth century.
These concerns and obsessions are among the most important — though frequently forgotten or even actively suppressed — sources for the very high profile of technology-centred approaches in contemporary German media theory. Third, it is important to realise the extent to which dictatorships and lib- erations in modern German history were experienced as media events.
Radio had a direct impact on young minds and bodies of the s, an impact that served to exorcise the authoritarian or even Fascist voices that had tried to control these bodies previously. With this in mind a second, equally blunt hypothesis: And this is where matters get interesting.
Posthuman cultural studies? What does this imply? It is beyond the scope of this chapter to give an overview — an overview, no less, of some- thing that is not yet in view because it is only currently emerging. The prefix post does not imply that a new type of cultural studies must be developed to engage with a world that allegedly is no longer made by humans.
Modeling the distributions of tegu lizards in native and potential invasive ranges
It is not a matter of technologising theory in order to adequately deal with the new, media-based assemblage of cultural machineries and productions that have sidelined all wetware activities.
This would once again invoke the old fallacy of supersession — first humans had the top billing in history, now they are being pushed aside by machines. The focus is on short-, middle- and long- term structuration processes that have taken place throughout history on various sub- and supra-human levels.
The focus on technology cannot be the only crucial foray into posthu- man theory domains; it must be accompanied by a critical engagement with biological matters.
In this context the work of Luhmann takes on special importance, given that its basic blueprint is a vexing import into sociology of a biological model of differentiation for more see Winthrop-Young So let us start with him. At first glance his presence in German media theory is a bit baffling: Keep in mind, however, that communication, as conceptualised by Luhmann, is something humans despite all their brains and conscious minds cannot do.
The most radical aspect of this idea is not the tripartition of communication into information, utterance and understanding that con- stantly feed into each other, or the complex notion of structural coupling that ties this communication three-step to human minds. Nor is it the demotion of the liberal subject from its position as source and goal of communication. What is important is the prospect that the autopoeisis of communication allows it to be coupled to new machines instead of old minds: Already today computers are in use whose operations are not accessible to the mind or to communication.
Although manufactured and pro- grammed machines, such computers work in ways that remain intranspar- ent to consciousness and communication — but which by way of structural coupling nevertheless influence consciousness and communication. They are, strictly speaking, invisible machines.
To ask whether computers are machines that operate in ways analogous to the mind or whether they can replace or even surpass it, is to pose the wrong question, if not to make light of the issue. Neither does it matter whether or not the internal operations of the computer can be conceived of as communications. Rather, one will have to drop all these analogies and instead ask what the consequences will be when computers can create a fully independent structural coupling between a reality they can construct and psychic or communicative systems.
Luhmann Luhmann did not pursue this line of thought, but his ideas were quickly seized upon by German media scholars influenced by Kittler.
The result was one of the most bizarre productions ever performed on the German theory stage: Maresch and Werber ; see also Winthrop- Young The inevitable knee-jerk reactions against such super- theories are gratuitous and miss out on the interesting components. He hinted at a kind of silicon sociology that places inter-machine communications alongside their human counterpart.
But he said all this with little insight into the technologies that enable his scenario.
de 19 ori katherine john green pdf books
This is precisely where Kittler comes in. The project itself is quixotic, but it does provide a first delin- eation of a possible future posthuman cultural studies. First, however, it is necessary to understand what Kittler is aiming at.
In this context it is helpful to contrast his particular merging of poststructuralism and technology briefly with developments in the United States. Readers may recall that especially in the early s certain sectors of US literary scholarship were aglow with the promise of computer-aided writing. Much like an oversized airplane that arrives ahead of schedule in an underdeveloped region and is then forced to circle the clouds and wait for the ground crew to build an adequate runway, French theory appeared to be locked in a holding pattern with little chance of a touchdown in reality.
In hindsight it is difficult not to make fun of this fortunate redemption of old-world theory through new-world tech- nology. Lurking underneath this happy tale is an old intercontinental love story: The dainty conquest is whisked off West, as it were, to earn her keep on the homestead, where she confers on her new abode a touch of class and cultured je ne sais quoi. Technology grounds theory, theory elevates technology.
Culture itself turns into a vast data-processing machinery.
Carti de Citit
To analyse the specificity of a given culture therefore requires a focus on those historically contingent techno- logical and institutional features that regulate the input, throughput and output of data. And out of one of these techno-cultural configurations — to be precise: Once again, it is important to realise the radical implications. What is remarkable is a Hegelian agenda that Kittler somewhat awkwardly hinted at in an interview: Kittler To combine this with Luhmann: Luhmann envisaged a scenario in which non-human communications exist independently and alongside communication systems that depend on human input or — to use terms that Luhmann only employed ironically — the agency of autonomous subjects.
This, I would argue, is the framework for a truly posthuman cultural studies. Two points must be added. First, it would be a mistake to believe that all this started with computers, the Internet or virtual technologies.
The creation and subsequent exclusion of human subjects can already be plotted when analysing old media infrastructures that appear to be at the beck and call of said subjects.
Bernhard Siegert, probably the most brilliant of the younger German media theorists writing in a Kittlerian vein, has shown this in connection with the post office Siegert He shows how subjects are consti- tuted by the postal delivery apparatus rather than vice versa and how, with the introduction of prepayment and the standardisation of all inter- faces between the people and the postal network, the latter effectively became a closed circuit, for which the contingencies of sender and receiver are irrelevant as long as their position is predetermined in a postal grid.
The post, in other words, emerges as a closed Luhmannian system see Winthrop-Young ; Winkler a: This early objection contains two impor- tant points that will return time and again whenever Kittler mentions Derrida. Of Grammatology delineates a metaphysically charged privileging of voice over writing that connects Plato to Rousseau with little consideration of the intervening two thousand years, which saw a very deliberate promotion of writing over voice Kittler a: Derrida, it appears, lacks a sufficiently technologically informed sense of history.
This is not to say that all poststructuralist German media scholarship falls in line with Kittler. Despite its frequent engagement with technology it may turn out to be a verbose rearguard action aimed at avoid- ing the full implications of the analog—digital media shift.
The Americans, then, were right to insist on the enactment of theory through technology; the Germans were right in insisting that it goes way beyond new forms of writing and that these new forms feed back into reflection.
Nietzsche knew what he was talking about: But it is the self-reflexive twist that really counts: That must be the baseline command of all media studies. Much like dragons appearing at the margins of old maps, they rep- resent a non plus ultra: In conclusion, let us outdo this hyperbole with an even more outlandish exaggeration that may serve as the vanishing point for posthuman cultural studies.
Employing a formidable Brechtian defamiliarisation effect, De Landa writes as if he were a histori- ographically inclined artificial intelligence descended from intelligent weapons systems that has decided to write its own genealogy.
Authorship, Commerce and the Public
The robot historian of course would hardly be bothered by the fact that it was a human who put the first motor together: Similarly, when this robot historian turned its attention to the evolution of armies in order to trace the history of its own weaponry, it would see humans as no more than pieces of a larger military-industrial machine: What would it say about cultural evolution?
How would it write a history of literature? Authors, editors, publishers, critics, readers as parts of a large writing apparatus all become disposable once feedback mechanisms had evolved that surpassed limited human process- ing capabilities. Notes 1 A note on German: To date there is no such overview available in English, but glimpses can be found in Geisler and Werber Not until very recently has the topic been taught at some German schools.
Tuman ed. University of Pittsburgh Press, pp.
Salvator rufescens had higher habitat suitability in semi-arid areas, whereas S. We propose that Florida is not the only state where these taxa could become established, and that early detection and rapid response programs targeting tegu lizards in potentially suitable habitat elsewhere in North America could help prevent establishment and abate negative impacts on native ecosystems.
Introduction The impacts of invasive predators on native biodiversity are increasingly acute and recognized as principal drivers of biodiversity loss 1.
Invasive species cause extinctions and irreversible ecosystem-wide changes in biodiversity, alter community-level processes, and transport pathogens, any of which can result in negative effects on ecosystem functions and services 2.
Invasive reptile species cause substantial harm to native populations and ecosystems 3 , 4 , 5. Characteristics of reptiles, including low energetic requirements and high reproductive potential, contribute to their potential as efficient invaders that are difficult to eradicate 3 , 4.
Burgeoning populations of invasive reptiles can have substantial impacts on native species and ecosystems, including endangered species and ecologically and economically important species e. Tegus Squamata: Teiidae; 3 species in Salvator, 7 in Tupinambis 9 are terrestrial lizards widely distributed in South America east of the Andes 10 , Individuals of at least three species of tegus have been documented outside of their native ranges.
Salvator merianae Argentine black and white tegu and Tupinambis teguixin sensu lato gold tegu are established in Florida, while S. Elsewhere, T. Reptiles are the second most abundant taxon in the international pet trade 16 , and while tegus are increasingly recognized as potentially invasive species they have remained common in international live animal trade.
Between and , importers in the U. An unknown additional number of tegus are produced in the U. Cumulatively, trade in live tegus in the U. Salvator merianae populations appear to be expanding in Florida, and ongoing programs are aimed at understanding and confronting the conservation challenges of eradicating and controlling S.
Tegus exhibit a number of life-history characteristics that may predispose them to be successful invaders. They are predacious omnivores with relatively rapid maturation, high reproductive output, large body size, and a relatively long lifespan 18 , Tegus are habitat and dietary generalists that live in various disturbed and undisturbed forest types and around urban areas and human settlements 10 , Salvator merianae and S.
Tegus are opportunistic feeders, consuming a surprisingly diverse variety of foods including plant matter, fruit, insects, mollusks, every class of vertebrates, and carrion e. In Argentina, Paraguay, and Bolivia, S. Despite an average of 1. Our first goal was to model and map the native-range distributions of the 3 large-bodied tegu species that have been documented in Florida. Several other species of tegus were not considered for this analysis because they are not known to have invaded North America and their distributions and habitat affinities are not well known.
We used a suite of five species distribution models SDMs based on presumed biologically meaningful input variables to create maps of potentially suitable habitat for these species in South America.
The second goal was to project these native range models of potentially suitable habitat for tegus into North America, thus providing the ability to assess relative invasion risk for each species and for tegus overall. Species distribution models are a commonly used tool to identify suitable habitat for potential biological invaders 25 , We also developed a distribution model based on occurrences for all 3 species combined.
If tegu distributions were due to biotic interactions among tegu species, for example, we would not capture the full potential range of a single species within North America when its congeners are not in the available species pool.
The species distribution models and maps generated in this analysis are empirically-derived geospatial hypotheses of distributions of these tegu species in South America and potentially suitable habitat in North America. The combined map was based on thinned and un-thinned locations for tegu Fig.
Training split area under the receiver operating characteristic curve AUC and cross-validation AUC scores ranged from 0. Sensitivity ranged from 0. Specificity values had a similar pattern. Percent correctly classified values were again similar except for RF for T.
The top performing model algorithm varied by SDM metric, so no model algorithm was consistently superior. Given the performance of the models and the general difference of 0. Figure 1 Spatial extent and occurrence records black dots for Salvator merianae Argentine black and white tegu , Salvator rufescens red tegu , Tupinambis teguixin gold tegu , and these records combined in South America. Cine are cartea " Orasul de hartie" in format PDF? De 19 ori Katherine - Editura Trei: Psihologie - Psihoterapie New York Times Book Review Whale - Wikipedia ; Etymology and definitions.
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Comstock, who had been taken by said Wallace Catherine Fish, April 11, Marx at the Margins: On Nationalism, Ethnicity, and Non-Western Gesamtausgabe, in Marx published this statement on May 19, , in the final edition of. School of Braly, Solomon Salah, Delilah Salah.Williams often acknowledged, as ever-present even if not always fully conscious , the process of comparison between thought and feeling, experience and experiment, the indivisible whole and its parts, the disarmingly simple and densely complex and, even more, how each could contain the other while also remaining itself.
Conflict is relegated to disputes over status, and identity is sucked back into the vacuum of sociology and spat out into the cesspit of community. Not yet. City Lights Books. Deleuze, Gilles and Claire Parnet  , Dialogues, trans. Multiplicity and the play of chance.
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